Institute of Energy Systems and Electrical Drives, Department of Electrical Drives and Machines
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About the project

SustEner originates from the recognition of the enormous societal, economic and technological potential of a European sustainable, low-carbon economy, and from the range of scientific and non-technical challenges preventing the realization of this vision. The purpose of SustEner is to modernize Sustainable El. Energy vocational training by enhancing existing or establishing new training methods in enterprises and education. Up-to-date knowledge and educational methods developed in previous projects will be brought directly from the educational institutions to industry and VET institutes. Different topics of sustainable energy education are already developed by the partners. Transfer of this knowledge between partners and to the target group as well as an accommodation for the needs of target groups is the first goal of the project. The proposal seeks to adapt and transfer pedagogical materials.The second goal is a transfer of technologies developed during previous projects listed below to learning material of sustainable energy. The project team collaborated in the previous Leonardo projects "Interactive and Unified E-Based Education and Training in Electrical Engineering", where number of interactive modules with animations were prepared. The attained results are unique and of a great pedagogical value. Due to the employed technology the usage in education is extremely flexible. In the project "E-learning Distance Interactive Practical Education" a number of distance laboratories is developed. The solution consisted in redesigning hardware experiments so that they also can be accessed by the Web. The technology and Innovation developed during these projects will be transferred to a new area of Sustainable Electrical Energy and Power. A number of high quality learning modules delivering knowledge are going to be prepared by partners from educational institutions. All modules will address specific local knowledge and skills needs of industrial partners.Altogether at least 9 practically oriented modules with remote experiments and/or interactive animation material will be offered in a modern learning portal. Provided contents and learning functionalities will enable employees/apprentices/trainees to acquire new professional skills and enhance their job performance. Successful integration of developed technology applied to a new field is planned to realize within framework of the Project.


The project aims are:

  • to find out which are by industry required specialized knowledge and skills in Sustainable Energy/engineering;
  • to adapt practically oriented learning modules;
  • to enhance and modernize training methods by incorporation of content/functionalities available in advanced learning methods such as interactive animations or distance laboratories;
  • to adapt alternative energy sources learning modules and stimulate shift toward low‐carbon industry;
  • to support community of professionals and strengthen links between VET and industry.


Vienna University of Technology will prepare the module:       Power Management techniques for hybrid electric cars

Module Summary

In the hybrid electric cars the electric machine together with the combustion machine generates the power needed for driving, see for example figure below. The main purpose of the electrical machine in parallel configuration is to keep the combustion machine working near its optimum efficiency. In a full electric car currently only the energy stored in the battery is available. In any configuration the goal is to use the energy available with the highest efficiency possible.


The electric machine has a peak efficiency of more than 90% compared to more than 40% with modern combustion engines. However, these values may dramatically drop when operated only at partial load. In public discussion usually only the peak efficiency numbers are communicated leading sometimes to expectations that can not be met in practical operation. 

When driving at a speed of around 20km/h what corresponds to the average speed of inner city traffic, the necessary traction power is only a fraction of the installed power. As a result the efficiency of the drive train dramatically decreases and the power consumed by auxiliary systems of the vehicle like heating, air conditioning, power steering, audio, or lighting may even be higher than that consumed for actually driving.

Depending on the driving cycle the optimum level of hybridisation as well as load sharing strategy and electrical energy storage management for highest overall efficiency may thus be completely different.

The goal of the module is to show and compare the influence of the installed power of the combustion machine and the electric machine as well as the electrical storage capacity on the overall performance (acceleration rate, top speed, fuel consumption, etc) of a hybrid car.

The focus lies on the overall energy needed to drive a distance on specific standard driving cycles.


  1. Introduction

  2. Definition and classification of hybrid electric cars: Different concepts of organizing the elements of the hybrid drive train will be described and compared

  3. Internal combustion engine: A basic description and comparison of different available internal combustion engines will be given. Special focus will be laid on the operating conditions and efficiency ranges

  4. Electrical machines: Operating principles of electric machines will be described. The different types will be compared with special emphasis on the machine control, power electronics, and efficiency ranges

  5. Energy storage: The most important and currently industrially applied electrical energy storage components will be described and compared with focus on applicability in hybrid electric cars

  6.  Load sharing principles and power management: The influence and possibilities of load sharing of internal combustion engine and electrical machine together with electric energy storage will be described and how it can be used to increase the overall system efficiency

  7. Conclusion

Requirement and Results

  • Basic knowledge in internal combustion engines.

  • Basic knowledge in electric machines and drives.

  • General knowledge in electrical and mechanical engineering.

 The user will be able to: 

  • configure a hybrid car with combustion machine, electrical machine, battery storage

  • chose from different driving cycles with various percentage of highway and inner city as well as up/downhill passages

  • activate/deactivate different auxiliary systems like lights, air conditioning, entertainment,...

  • compare the overall efficiency of the chosen level of hybridisation and power distribution of the car to a full electric car as well as to a conventional car powered by combustion machine only

  • compare the overall energy needed to cover the driving cycle based on the different boundary conditions

The expected results are:

  1. An interactive animation that shows that the peak efficiency is only one part of the achieved range of a vehicle as most of the energy is consumed at partial load operating states where the auxiliary power consumption of the vehicle may be even higher than that of the traction power.
  2. Enhanced knowledge on the influence of the level of hybridization and auxiliary systems on vehicle performance and energy efficiency.


The target group are engineers involved in the design of electric drives for vehicles as well as students working in the field of e-mobility.

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.
This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.